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A DXer's Tour of Guatemala

By Don Moore


Author's Note: This is the first significant piece of radio-writing that I ever did. It was originally published in the December 1983 issue of Review of International Broadcasting (issue 83). Except in a few small spots, no effort was made to rewrite or edit the text. In re-reading the article, I am happy to say I write much better now!

About 3 p.m. I arrived in Jocotan, in the back of the pickup that had picked me up not long before crossing the border, near the Copan Ruins in Honduras. The road to Jocotan is dirt, a thread winding its way around and between some rather stupendous mountain scenery. After finding a room in the Pension Ramirez at 1.50 Quetzales a night - the Guatemalan Quetzal is equal to one US dollar - and having a supper of eggs and rice at Emma's Eating Place, I walked around town a bit. This area of Guatemala is heavily mestizo, very similar to nearby Honduras, although more developed. It is not the Guatemala of colorful Indians seen in tourist guides. In fact, tourists are quite rare here, and the very walls seemed to be whispering, "There's a gringo in town". With a population of about 2500, Jocotan is the main town in the northeastern portion of Chiquimula Department. Downtown is a collection of small stores, outdoor vendor stands, a nice little ice cream place, and a large well built public school. And of course there is the town plaza, small, but with nice old Ceiba trees for shade, and the old Catholic Church.

Radio Chortis I found two blocks from the plaza in the Centro Social Building. Several simple wooden signs on the front alert passers-by of the presence of Radio ChortiS, a small print shop, and several other services offered there. The building is of colonial type construction. A large, square building, it has a beautiful a well-cared for garden in the center. The garden is surrounded by a walkway roofed over. All rooms open onto this walkway, towards the garden. In the rear are several rooms occupied by Radio Chortis--two identical studios, each equipped with a console, two reel-to-reel decks, and two turntables, in very good condition. Also there is a larger room which can be used to record programs involving several people. A small secretary's office - she served the entire Centro Social, not just Radio Chortis - and a large room for files and the record and recordings library round out their little corner.

After taking a few pictures, I sat in the garden and chatted with four off-duty announcers who were present. This might seem unusual in the states, but in rural communities down here, where there is little to do, I've almost always found off-duty announcers hanging around the stations, just to pass the time. After looking over some reports, getting a QSL for myself and just talking, I left the announcers and walked to the other side of town where the antenna is located. It shares the top of a hill with the Adventist School and Clinic. The antenna is a dipole, strung between two steel masts of about fifty feet height. They use a line to carry the signal to the antenna.

Next I went to the Catholic Church to talk to station manager, Padre Juan Maria Boxus. The padre is one of two French-Belgian priests in Jocotan, and has been there for three years. The church, radio station, and related services are financed by donations from Belgian and West German Catholics. This mission has operated here for over two decades. The padre seemed to be starved for outside company, and we talked for over an hour and a half on the station, Central America, and even Belgian history.

Between the announcers and the padre I learned a lot about Radio Chortis. While their transmitter is one kW, it actually operates at about 850 watts. Having dropped morning transmissions, they broadcast daily from 2230 to 0330 GMT, producing all their own material. All programming is in Spanish, except a half hour of Chorti at 2300 on Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday. The Chorti Indians, from whom the station obviously gets its name, were the original inhabitants of this area where Guatemala, Honduras and Salvador come together. Now the language is only spoken in a few isolated communities, unlike the native languages of Western Guatemala & Alta Verapaz which are alive and vibrant. Programming at the station is mainly educational, with some basic health and agriculture too.

Their central audience is the Departments of Chiquimula, Zacapa, and Izabal. Judging from their mail, they believe they have a sizable audience in the northern Peten region also. In fact, the mayor of San Benito, in the central Peten, recently sent the station a letter asking them to remind San Benito residents to pay their annual water bill or face a cut in service. You can hear the program of avisos, or local announcements, nightly at 0130 GMT. Besides the station, the mission also operates a small health clinic, a small school, and some skill training. They receive about three reports a week, mainly from the USA, and appreciate them very much. In fact, the station is decorated with stickers and postcards from around the world.

The next morning I was on an old school bus, long retired from active duty in the US, on my way to Chiquimula. Old school buses never die, they get sent to Central America. This one, which seated 54, held the 95 I counted plus a few more I probably missed. Like many others, I was standing in the aisle unable to move either foot. Such is the toll for visiting Radio Chortis! Buses here are rarely that full, however; it is illegal, which is why when we got to the outskirts of Chiquimula, the conductor made half the passengers get off. I stayed on, getting a seat, until the center of town. At Chiquimula I switched to a bus for Guatemala City, a "Pullman" , i.e. personal reclining seats and no standing. In this paradise I rode for the next hour and a half to a small place called El Rancho, where a road branches off to Coban, home of Radio Tezulutlan. From there it was three hours in another bus and a very scenic ride that included several small (50-75 feet) waterfalls easily visible from the road.

Arriving in Coban about 2 pm, I viewed possibly the most developed town of its size (15,000) in Central America. Coban was the center of German influence in Guatemala in pre-WWII years and this investment, accompanied by the agricultural and mineral wealth of surrounding Alta Verapaz Department has produced a modern small city with no visible extreme poverty. Surrounding the large central plaza is the Cathedral, built in 1559, the huge mansion-like Departmental Capital Building - larger than any national government building in Tegucigalpa - and various shops, restaurants, and offices. And among all the people there were hundreds of colorfully dressed Kekchi Indian women. Alta Verapaz is part of Indian Guatemala!

After getting settled in at a cheap hotel, I asked a policeman for directions to the station, which turned out to be about 8 blocks from the city center. It is behind a very large and recently built Catholic Church. The station building, too, is new, surrounded by a beautiful lawn and trees. The name and station seal are painted on the building.

Both manager and assistant manager were out of town, but I had an excellent tour and discussion with Oscar Alejandro Prado, who has worked as an announcer for the past year, and before that for four years as a clerk. They have two "live" studios, as well as a third for recording. A comfortable reception room and a large office and file room round out the station facilities. Programs are sent via line to their antennas a few miles outside the city. Currently they use 5 kW for both 3370 and 4835 kHz.

Programs run from 1000 to 1500 and 2100-0230 daily, mostly in the Kekchl language, which is spoken by the large indigenous population of Alta Verapaz and Baja Verapaz, and spreads into neighboring departments as well. The only other language used is Spanish. Programming is educational, health-related, and agricultural. About half of their programming, including the 1130-1400 GMT Monday-Saturday slot, does not originate in Cobaan, but rather in nearby San Pedro Carcha, a town of about 6000, three miles east. There at the Centro Radial Carcha, many programs are done live. By contrast, almost all programming originating in Coban is recorded a day or two before.

The station has some of its 1979 4th-anniversary pennants left, and issues QSL cards with a blue tinted photo of a traditional procession performed on January 15th, Esquipulas Day, one of Guatemala's primary religious festivals. They receive two or three reports a week. After being answered, all reports as well as accompanying postcards, pamphlets, etc., are put into albums. They take great pride in reports, as is well evident in the care and work that went into the album for part of 1979 that I looked through. After receiving a QSL and a gift of two cassettes, one of flute music and the other of harp music, both typical of Alta Verapaz, I bade farewell to this friendly station with a vow to return. Not a difficult vow, as I could easily live the rest of my life in Coban, such a beautiful, friendly city.

The next morning, I made the trip to nearby San Pedro Carcha, which is the center of Guatemala's silver industry. Very fine jewelry can be bought there, e.g. handmade silver earrings at 75 cents a pair, which I'm told by American women would sell at $7-$8 in the states. While there, I stopped in at the town's only radio station, Radio Imperial, officially on 930 kHz, but well heard in Santa Bgrbara on 925 kHz. I tried to talk to the manager, but he was a very unfriendly sort - the only such person I encountered in Guatemala - and left me with the secretary. Playing her my cassette of reception, I then explained I wanted a veri letter, and what that was. To further clarify the matter I showed her a copy of the Spanish National Radio Club Station Manager's Guide to What is DX, and pointed out the picture of the Radio Millon, Costa Rica, QSL, and explained something in that format. As she typed up the veri letter, I sat back and realized I really didn't mind being left with the secretary--she was wearing a very transparent blouse and lacy low-cut brassiere, so I rather enjoyed it. Unfortunately, that's probably why I didn't realize until after leaving, the problem with my QSL. But I'll count it anyway. After all, it does have the correct time, date, and frequency. So what if it says I heard Radio Millon?

While in Coban I noted that the station on 1350 is inactive. Tbre town does have a new station, though, a Radio Cultural on 1290 kHz, which seems to be evangelical. The only other station in the area is Radio Norte, 680 kHz, in downtown Coban. Note Radio Norte is the correct slogan, contrary to the WRTH. It is the only one used on the air, and is the one painted on the building. They, too, are a regular in Santa Barbara, and I wanted to get a veri, however, I waited until the last minute to visit and only two very busy DJs were there. So after an all too brief 24 hours in Coban, I left for Guatemala City.

Guatemala City--here they just say Guatemala, or more simply Guate, while to gringos it's Guat City. Spanish capital of colonial Central America, federal capital of the short-lived united Central America of 1823-1839, it is still the cultural, educational, industrial, and commercial capital of Central America. It is a busy metropolis of one and a quarter million; clean and full of beautiful parks and wide boulevards. The excellent city bus service costs 10 cents a ride. The government buildings, which were mainly built during the reign of strongman Manuel Estrada Cagrera, 1898-1920, are a beauty to the eye. Guat City also has modern high rises and many fine stores and restaurants. Sixth Avenue, the main commercial center, has so many large lighted glass signs overhanging it that I swear one could walk down the middle of the street during a rainstorm and not get wet. And unlike similar size cities in the US, one can walk downtown anytime of night without fear, though of course that was not possible two years ago due to political violence.

While mainly a middle class city, Guat City, like all urban centers of Latin America does have a large proportion of its population living in the barrios-marginales - the crowded slums of shacks slapped together of old boards, tin cans, sheet plastic, and whatever else will do the job, e.g. a rusty old automobile hood. Barefoot, seminude children play among the mud, the manure, and the garbage; while their mothers, looking 60 years old at an overworked and toothless 30, gossip through the hole in the wall windows while making tortillas. Usually in these areas about half the children are illegitimate, but the fathers that are there make very little money anyway, selling oranges in the streets or shining shoes. The worst slum of the US is an often dreamed of paradise here.

And slums everywhere have one thing in common - radios blasting at earbusting levels. So what of radio in Guat City? Channels are neatly spaced every 30 kHz, starting at 550, where the station oddly enough uses the slogan Radio 560. The stations on 1030, 1270, and 1360 are located in Guat City - the WRTH-listed Villa Victoria is the name of the building. The station on 610 now calls itself Radio Seiscientos Diez, while the one on 1420 goes by Canal Catorce Veinte, or rarely, Radio Capital. Seems gringo station habits are creeping down here.

One of the odder things about Guat City radio is that so few stations have signs. Of those I visited, or at least passed by, Radio Rumbos, Super Radio, Radio Mundial, Radio Emperador, FM Estereo Azul, and even TGW La Voz de Guatemala had no sign advertising their presence. While Radio Nuevo Mundo had one - on old fifties-type neon looking very out of place on modern 6th Avenue - there was no indication of sister station Radio Sensacion, nor at Ciro's Musical did the sign mention the co-owned La Voz de las Americas. Only the Adventist station, Union Radio, completely advertised themselves, of those that I saw.

I guess this is partly because it is unnecessary in a city as well laid out as Guatemala City. With the street address and zone number, any place can be easily found. And these zone numbers can be helpful to DXers. Guat City, as well as the other principal cities of Guatemala, is divided into numbered zones. In ads, businesses will give their addresses including the zone number, e.g. 12 Calle 15-34, Zona #4. If you hear zonas mentioned in the ads you can be sure you have Guatemala. No other country in Central America uses the zona system, nor, I believe any in South America. Of course, this is only an aid to MW DXers, as commercial broadcasting on SW is prohibited in Guatemala. But then it would also be of use to DXers of MW harmonics. Another indication of Guatemala is that stations here generally use the 24h format in time checks, much rarer elsewhere in Central America.

I didn't have the opportunity to visit many stations, but the first I went to was Radio Rumbos, 1210 kHz. This station is logged rather regularly in North America; in fact, I heard them quite often back in central Pennsylvania, despite WCAU. They broadcast 24 hours a day with 5 kW except from 0500 to 0900 GMT daily when they cut back to 1 kW to save energy. The only other 24h station in the country is Ciro's Musical on 850 kHz. At Rumbos I talked to Rolando Bobadilla, the gerente, who told me a lot about broadcasting in Guat City, although I somehow came away learning little about his station. Guat City stations have been having financial problems as advertising here is switching more and more to TV, as more and more families among the middle class can afford televisions. Four commercial stations have closed down - those on 1060, 1090, 1120 & 1150. Also Radio Istmania on 1390 is only using 100 watts and irregular at that to maintain their channel, preferring to use their FM coverage. Radio Faro Aviateca, 1540 kHz, Guat City's only classical music station, has dropped AM entirely, now using FM only.

Radio Cultural, TGNA, which has been off the air on SW for several weeks, and irregular on MW, has been having problems due to what Senor Bobadilla called "philosophical differences" with the government. He wasn't sure of the details, and I didn't have a chance to go to the station and find out. However, it is interesting to note that both station and Guatemalan President Rios Montt are evangelists. But then, I've always thought TGNA to be a rather 'softcore' evangelist station, like HCJB, as contrasted to Guat City's other evangelist station, La Voz Evangelica de America, 1570 kHz, which seems to be 'hardcore,' reminding me of a station I like to call "Your Reactionary Radio".

Also it seems that Central America will get its first stereo AM station very soon. La RH, 1480 in Guat City, will be installing stereo before yearend , although Senor Bobadilla did not know which system. La RH - not to be confused with the station listed on 1470 kHz which has moved to 800; is not listed in the WRTH. It is owned by Carlos Arana Osorio, ex-general, ex-president (70-74), and un hombre muy rico with lots of money to invest in the station.

Sr. Bobadilla gave me an eight page booklet his station had printed up, detailing the August 1982 Multiplex ratings done in Guat City. Obviously it says a lot in eight pages, but a few basic facts from it; the five most popular stations and the percentages of the total Guat City population listening, on average, at any given time are: Radio Nuevo Mundo 4%, Ciro's Musical 3.8%, Radio Sonora 3.4%, Radio Rumbos 3.3%, and Radio Mundial 3.2%. On average, 39.4% of the Guat City population is listening to the radio at any given time, which means Nuevo Mundo has about a 10% audience share. More people, 50.2%, are listening to the radio at 7 a.m., than at any other time, and during daylight hours, the least at 3 p.m., only 24.1%. Of the ten most popular stations, the average cost for a 30 second spot is Q4.14, ranging from Q3.00 at Rumbos, Sonora, and Fabuestereo FM, to a high of Q6.00 at Radio Fabulosa. Fabulosa and Fabuestereo, oddly enough, are co-owned. Of the six FM-only stations, only Fabuestereo and La SS cracked the top fifteen in this 35-station market.

Leaving Rumbos, I then visited Super Radio, 760 kHz, about 15 blocks away on busy Sixth Avenue. One must walk up an old, wide staircase to get to the station, which is located in the second story, above some shops. The fact that the station is one of the oldest in Guat City is much reflected by its equipment. The walls are decorated with record posters and cheesecake calendars. That's fairly common here. The only people there were four announcers who, while very friendly, didn't seem to know much, except that the station has received four overseas reports during the past several years. We chatted a while in the studio. Although most stations have signs up, prohibiting anyone but the announcer on duty from entering the studio while on the air, these are usually conveniently ignored; when the DJ is talking to the microphone, no one speaks above a whisper. I've never stopped to count how many on-the-air studios I've been into down here. Soon they mentioned something about getting ready for the interview. It took me a few moments to realize whom they were going to interview. While my Spanish is good, it was scary being interviewed live, with who knows how many people listening. I was on the air almost 20 minutes, talking about my hobby, where I lived in the states, and how I liked Guatemala. I guess this haphazard attitude towards programming is why the station didn't make the top fifteen. Maybe there weren't so many people listening after all!

After that I had a phone call to make, to Carlos Zipfel, publicity officer of the Guatemala DX Club. The club has about six central members and 15-20 peripheral ones, and most of the remainder of the time I was in Guatemala City I spent visiting with the central members with their immense kindness and hospitality. The club does not publish a bulletin, but the members maintain contact through occasional meetings, visits, and phonecalls. Also, Carlos Zipfel, who works at one of Guat City's FM stations, Estereo Azul, produces a weekly 15-minute DX program broadcast on TGW, 640 kHz, Mondays at 2204 GMT, and on 6180 Fridays nominally at 2104, although it can vary two hours either way. Carlos has been seriously involved with DXing for over ten years, but the program focuses on the basics, to help beginners. He recorded an interview with me for later use in the program. At least this time I could stop the interview and correct my Spanish! One of the club's main activities is promoting 1983 as "Ano Diexista Internacional Por La Paz", or International DX Year for Peace. Perhaps not that inappropriate here in Central America. The club can be reached care of Carlos Zipfel, RRPP Apartado 1139, Guatemala, Guatemala.

With Carlos I visited TGW. La Voz de Guatemala, where we talked to several staff members. I learned that while their 640 kHz MW frequency is listed as 100 kW, they have been using only about 30 kW for a long time. And lately they have been having problems with the SW transmitters, which is why they've been off the air a lot. They are expecting new parts. The SW service has its own studio. Generally, 6180 is a separate service, not parallel the MW, and is intended for the exterior. The 9760 frequency may be used in parallel with either the 640 or 6180 frequency. The studio equipment is extensive, but old, especially so in the SW studio, less so in the AM & FM ones. They have a large studio for broadcasting live marimba concerts, complete with their own marimba. It is one of the largest I've seen, and has a small carved wood TGW sign on it. Made of beautiful varnished wood, the marimba is very well cared for.

When I tell the folks at the various SW stations in Guatemala that they are very popular in North America among DXers because we like their marimba music, they just beam a smile from ear to ear in pride. In fact, many stations maintain their own private collections of reel-to-reel tapes they've made themselves. Thus, much of the marimba music heard on the air is unique - only that particular station has a copy.

The next afternoon, Wednesday, I left for Panajachel, the principal lake shore village along Lake Atitlan. One first sees the lake, and its three volcanoes , from Solola, high on a mountain top that steeply drops to the lake. From Solola the road descends 550 meters in four miles to Panajachel, along the lakeshore. Can there be a more exotic way to DX than looking at the lights of all these little villages surrounding the lake, while sitting on a rock soaking one's bare feet in the waters of chilly & beautiful Lake Atitlan?

The next day, Thursday, was market day in nearby Chichicastenango, location of the best market in Guatemala. Thus I planned a most interesting day of visiting Chichi and Nahuala. From Panajachel, the trip to Chichi involves about two hours of bus hopping. Leaving early, I arrived about 9:30 a.m. I then spent over three hours wandering among the brightly dressed Indians speaking languages I don't understand. The two churches facing one another from opposite sides of the plaza--one spreading incense from its front door. And stands of things you're just not going to find at K-Mart, no matter how hard you look. Shirts, dresses, tablecloths, handbags, blankets, shawls: all in the Guatemalan rainbow of colors. And all offered at prices so cheap, one feels ashamed to pay the vendor so little--yet one pays even less; after all you must bargain for a lower price. The vendors will tell you that, if you take as serious the original asking price. To these people, the market is a chance to share a portion of someone else's life. And they take great pride in the fact that others so totally appreciate their beautiful wares. If you must know the prices, this is where an embroidered man's shirt sells at $8, an embroidered tablecloth & napkin set at $14, and a multi-colored shawl for $4.

Somehow I left this magical place behind, and an hour and two buses later found myself along the highway, about a mile from Nahuala. As the bus I was on did not go into Nahuala, it left me off where the walk was shortest, instead of where the side road branched back to Nahuala. Passing among some Indian children, some sheep, and some cornfields, I walked back the narrow dirt path. Ahead of me lay a town, small, population about 2000. The highest structure was the church, and like moss on a rock, the town sort of grew up the side of a small hill behind it. Adobe houses, red tile roofs. So typical of Central America and so enchanting every time. At the top of the hill were some thick pine trees, but they didn't hide the three antenna towers. If it weren't for the antennas of La Voz d Nahuala, powerlines, and the few motor vehicles, the town of Nahuala must surely look mach as it did a century ago. Nahuala is not a place on the tourist routes, so I attracted quite a bit of attention. Soon I was in the plaza, in front of the church. I picked my victim, then walked up and asked, "Excuse me, sir, but can you tell me where the offices of La Voz de Nahuala are located?" "Two blocks up the street? Thank you very much." With station name and call letters painted on the building front, above the door, there it was.

I introduced myself and was ushered into the studio by two announcers. It was almost 3:00; in five minutes they were to go on the air. At 3 p.m. it was on the air with a sign-on announcement in Spanish, then a switch to Quiche. The station broadcasts a little in Spanish, but mainly in Quiche and Cakchiquel, the principal indigenous languages of this region of Guatemala. The announcer put on a marimba disc, then turned to me and copied down a few personal details so as to introduce me to the audience, for my second live radio interview in Guatemala. The disc was over and he introduced me in Quiche. I recognized little more than my name and where I was from. The announcer switched to Spanish and for the next few minutes we talked about radio, Guatemalan music, and Nahuala. He then bade me farewell in Spanish and Quiche. This switching between languages is not so strange when one realizes most Guatemalan Indians, while using native tongues among themselves, do speak some Spanish. In fact, visiting foreigners who speak only marginal Spanish often find the Indians' simpler Spanish easier to understand.

Leaving the studio, I walked into the large spacious room that served as an office and reception center. I found that the station manager, a Catholic Sister, had returned. She is from the Spokane, Washington area, and although I forgot to ask her name, the WRTH lists Sister Gertrude Druffel Janet. She has lived in Nahuala and worked with the station for 20 years, since its inception. She explained a little more thoroughly some of the rural education projects they are involved in. The station's activities are supported by funding coming 88% from the US and 12% locally. After leaving the offices, I walked up the hill behind town to the transmitter room where they have two 1 kW transmitters, one as a reserve. The antenna, which I was not familiar with, was suspended between the three towers surrounded by corn plots on this otherwise pine covered hill. But it was getting late, and time for a long walk back down the hill and out to the highway to start bus-hopping back to Panajachel.

The most interesting thing the Sister told me did not concern her station, but rather an affiliate -La Voz de Atitlan on 2390 kHz. The station went off the air several years ago when its manager was murdered by a right wing death squad. Well, it seems the station returned to the air on May 1, 1982. However, it has only been broadcasting two hours a day in mid-afternoon, when it obviously can't be heard in North America, or even in Santa Bgrbara, Honduras. I planned to make the boat trip across the lake to Santiago Atitlan and visit the station. Unfortunately, only one other person planned to make the trip so the 'daily' boat service took the day off. Despite its afternoons-only broadcasts, the frequency bears watching as each of Lake Atitlan's dozen or so villages has its own saint's day festivals and the station could very well make a special broadcast for one of those. The station has been heard in Guat City by the GDXC members in the afternoons.

It was soon back to Guat City where I made my final visit, to AWR Union Radio. The station is located in one of the outer zonas, a long bus ride from the center. It's across the street from one of Guat City's sixteen Adventist churches. AWR has the most modern equipment in Guatemala, and probably in all Central America, with stacks of brand new cassette and reel-to-reel decks, turntables, mixers, etc. They have three studios, one each for their AM, FM, & SW outlets. Their programs are sent to the transmitter site, 12 miles outside the city, by UHF link - unique in Guatemala. Most other stations use FM, but this will soon change under a new law which will prohibit the use of FM for studio-transmitter links, and force these to move to UHF. It is meeting heavy resistance from station managers.

AWR's SW service is currently on 6090 kHz with a 10 kW transmitter operating on only 3 kW. They only broadcast four hours a day on SW, 0000-0200 in Spanish and 0200-0400 in English [however more recently also 1100-1300 in Sp. -gh] As this is for an international audience, they do not change the SW times to conform to Guatemalan DST. Puts them a step ahead of a few much larger stations. AWR would like to expand their service to a 100 kW transmitter, and add several more languages, including German and Japanese. Guatemalan laws make it difficult, however, for foreigners to work as radio announcers, and it isn't that easy to find Guatemalan Adventists who speak fluent German or Japanese, The law can be gotten around by using transcriptions of programs produced overseas which is what they will likely do.

One final note on Guatemalan broadcasting. Currently every Sunday at 9 p.m. (GMT Monday 0300 since DST went off in August about the time of the coup), all radio and TV stations must carry a 15-minute talk by President Rios Montt, a fact that could prove useful to BCB DXers. The story is circulating in Guat City that the government plans to increase this to two hours nightly. After all, just think of the energy savings if everyone turned off their radios and TVs after 9 p.m!


This article is copyright 1983 by Don Moore. It may not be printed in any publication without written permission. Permission is granted for all interested readers to share and pass on the ASCII text file of this article or to print it out for personal use. In such case, your comments on the article would be appreciated.

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